Sulcus, calculus and gingivitis
Periodontitis begins in the gingival sulcus placed between gums and teeth. Healthy gums are pink and sulcus are usually no more than 3 millimeters in depth. Gingiva is supplied by blood through blood vessels well and never bleeds.
But sometimes small grains of food can accumulate in sulcus. Mixing with mouth bacteria and saliva they form soft plaque dangerous for teeth. Mineralized plaque turns into hard stone-like substance called calculus which cannot be removed without dental instruments.
As a result of bacterial generation a number of immune cells in blood increases. The gums become enlarged and red. Such condition is called gingivitis and can be reversed with medicine.
Periodontitis — factors and consequences
Long-time exposure of bacterial acids and toxins causes more dangerous periodontal disease (periodontitis). The final result of that can be destruction of gums and tooth-supporting bones, loosing multiple teeth.
Smoking is one of the most serious factors which can produce periodontitis as it have an influence on blood circulation. The other risk factors are pregnancy, diabetes and heredity.
Periodontal bacteria can enter into blood vessels and produce blood clots. And they can cause such deadly dangerous deceases as strokes and heart attacks.